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After the installation of the Setup Support Files has completed successfully, the Installer reruns the Setup Support Rules, this time running additional checks to verify that the system will support the installation of SQL Server and its features. Again, if any of the tests fail or a warning is generated, you typically need to address this situation before continuing to ensure a successful SQL Server installation.

For example, if it shows a warning regarding Windows Firewall. Clicking on the Warning hyperlink in the Status column brings up a dialog with more information about the warning. In this case, the warning indicates that if Windows Firewall is enabled, the network ports for SQL Server need to be opened to allow remote clients to access SQL Server on this machine. If no tests have failed and all warnings have been reviewed or resolved, click Next to bring up the Product Key page to enter any necessary product keys if you are installing a version of SQL Server 2008 that is not free. After entering the product key (if needed), click Next to review the License Terms for SQL Server 2008 R2 . Note that you need to accept the license agreement that follows; otherwise, you can’t proceed. Click the check box indicating your acceptance of the license terms and click Next to bring up the Setup Role page.

The Setup Role page is new with SQL Server 2008 R2. This page was not available in SQL Server 2008. The Setup Role page lets you specify whether to use the Feature Selection page to select individual features to be installed or to install using a setup role. A setup role is a fixed selection of all the features and shared components required to implement a predefined SQL Server configuration.

 The SQL Server Feature Installation option lets you select individual features and shared components to be installed, such as Database Engine Services, Analysis Services (native mode), Reporting Services, and Service Broker. The Analysis Services with SharePoint Integration option allows you to install Analysis Services server components in a Microsoft Office SharePoint Server farm.

This option enables large-scale query and data processing for published Excel workbooks that contain embedded PowerPivot data. The All Features with Defaults option skips the Feature Selection screen and installs all SQL Server 2008 R2 features available for the current release. All services are installed with the default system accounts, and the current user running the install is provisioned as a member of the SQL Server sysadmin role. In most cases, you choose the SQL Server Feature Installation option. After selecting this option, click Next. Here, you can select which SQL Server features you want to install. For example, if you want to install only the SQL Server Client Tools, this is the place you specify that choice.

When the SCC scan is complete, overall status of the check is detailed at the top of the main window. You can click the Show Details button to view a detailed report of the checks performed. This report notes any issues found. If any checks fail, or a warning is raised, click the hyperlink in the Status column for more detailed report with specifics and suggestions for resolution. Click the View Detailed Report link to see the SCC results in an HTML report format, which is also saved to a file. 

After you verify that the system configuration is sufficient to support the SQL Server 2008 installation, click OK to go back to the SQL Server Installation Center. Then click on the Installation option in the menu on the left of the SQL Server Installation Center. This brings up the installation options. To install a new instance of SQL Server, select the New Installation or Add Features to an Existing Installation option, as shown in the below picture.

Install Screens, Step by Step The first step in installing SQL Server 2008 or 2008 R2 is, of course, to launch the SQL Server Installation Center. You do this by inserting the install DVD in the drive and double-clicking setup.exe in the root folder (if AutoPlay is enabled, setup runs automatically). If you’re installing from a decompressed .iso file or network share, locate the root folder and double-click the setup.exe file in the root folder. 

If Windows Installer 4.5 or Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1 are not installed, the SQL Server Setup program first needs to install them before you can continue. If this is the case, you see a dialog like the one shown in the picture below

On the Data Directories tab (shown below), you can configure the data root directory and default directories where the user and tempdb data and log files will be created, as well as the default location for the Backup directory. Note that the System Database Directory cannot be changed here; you need to return to the Instance Configuration page and modify the Instance Root directory.

In a production installation, for performance reasons, you should set up multiple drives or drive arrays to store the data and log files. Typically, you do not want the system data files stored on the C: drive, especially buried in the Program Files folder. You likely want to locate the data files on a high-performance drive setup specifically for database files and away from the system swap file and other applications. For recoverability purposes, you also should keep your backup files on a separate drive from your data files. (For more information on database devices and performance, see, “Database Design and Performance.”)

As a general rule, you also should place the log files on separate disks from the data files, and placingtempdb on its own disk further helps improve performance

If the prerequisites for the Installer need to be installed, you likely need to restart the computer for the updates to take effect. After restarting, rerun setup.exe to continue the installation.

When the prerequisites are installed, the Installation Wizard runs the SQL Server Installation Center, as shown in the following pic

 If any tests fail, you can click on the View Detailed Report link to see a more detailed report file. You can also click on the hyperlink in the Status column of the failed rule  to view specifics on the failed rule. If there are no failed Setup Support Rules to hinder installation, click OK to continue to the installation of the Setup Support Files shown below. The Setup Support Files are components that need to be installed so that the actual SQL Server product installation can proceed. Click Install to initiate the installation of the Setup Support Files.

 The order of the install screens and options may be slightly different in different SQL version, but the screen contents and options are similar.

The first step of the installation is to run the Setup Support Rules to identify any potential issues that might occur when the installer installs the SQL Server Setup support files and lists any items that may need to be corrected before Setup can continue. These checks include the following:

  • Operating system version
  • Whether there are any reboots pending from other installers
  • Whether the logged-in user is a system administrator (a must)
  • Whether there is support for long pathnames where the installation media resides
  • The consistency of any SQL Server Registry keys
  • After the Setup Support Rules run for the Setup Support Files, you can click on the Show Details button to display a window like that shown below.

 On the Server Configuration page, you can specify the specific user accounts and passwords to use for the selected SQL Server services you chose to install. To simplify matters, you can click the Use the Same Account for All SQL Server Services button to specify a single local or domain account dedicated for SQL Server 2008 R2 use and assign it to all services.

However, for improved security, it is recommended that you create multiple accounts, one for each service. This helps reinforce the least-privileged user account approach, which states that a user should have only the privileges required to get the job done—and no more. Having multiple accounts also makes it clearer for network administrators to determine which SQL Server services (as opposed to the multitude of other running services) are requesting access to a resource.

If you don’t specify a user account, the services are set up to run under the Local System account, which is an account with local admin privileges that does not have access to any network resources. The Installer provides warnings if you specify an account with insufficient privileges or credentials.

Also on the Service Accounts tab, you can select the server startup options for the SQL Server services being installed by selecting the startup type in the drop-down selection list to the right of the service. It is highly recommended to autostart the SQL Server service so it’s available when the system is started. (If necessary, you can change the startup options for the SQL Server services later, using the SQL Server Configuration Manager.) Regarding the SQL Server Browser service is installed only once, no matter how many instances you install.

If you are not sure what accounts to set up for the various services, don’t worry too much at this point. You can always change the service accounts later using the SQL Server Configuration Manager.

The Server Configuration page also allows you to override the default SQL Server collation settings. You do so by first clicking on the Collation tab. Collations are important because they are used to determine case sensitivity of textual data for comparisons, sort order in indexes, and so on.

If you’re running Windows in the United States, the collation selection defaults to SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS for the Database Engine. The default settings should be changed only if the collation setting for this installation of SQL Server needs to match the collation settings used by another instance of SQL Server, or if it needs to match the Windows system locale of another computer. If you need to change the collation settings, click on the Customize button. This brings up the Database Engine Collation Customization dialog, where you can select from standardized SQL Collations or customize your own by specifying a Windows collation setting and the desired sort options.

After making your selections on the Server Configuration page, click Next to move onto the Database Engine Configuration page. On this page, you can specify the authentication mode to use for SQL Server. This is done on the Account Provisioning tab (see picture below). The default setting is for Windows Authentication only. However, Mixed Mode authentication is required if you plan to have any clients authenticating to SQL Server 2008 R2 but will not be authenticating to a Windows domain. If you do select Mixed Mode authentication, you also have to enter a password to use for the built-in in SQL Server administration account (sa). A strongsa password is recommended. The Account Provisioning page also provides the opportunity to specify local or domain accounts to be mapped to the sysadmin role in SQL Server (you must provide at least one). These accounts have unrestricted access to SQL Server for performing SQL Server administration and maintenance tasks. For more information on user accounts, passwords, and server roles, see , “Security and User Administration.” 

The same installation program is used whether you want to perform a full SQL Server installation or to install just the client tools. You have the option to choose which components to install on the Feature Selection screen, which is displayed after you install the Setup Support Files.

​The first thing you’ll notice is that there is a great deal of content immediately available from the SQL Server Installation Center Planning window, including documentation on hardware and software requirements, release notes, security and upgrade documentation, and the System Configuration Checker. You typically first want to run the System Configuration Checker to confirm that your system meets the minimum hardware and software requirements for installing SQL Server 2008. Click on the link for the System Configuration Checker to bring up the screen shown the below pic. This is essentially the Setup Support Rules screen that also runs during the actual installation. It’s better to find out now if there will be any issues with the installation before you get into the actual installation.

 MSRS10_50.InstanceName—This is the parent folder for Reporting Services components. After you finish configuring the instance, click Next to bring up the Disk Space Requirements page. This information screen shows only the disk space requirements for the features you’ve chosen to install and the available space in the drives you selected to install to. If you want to change the install locations, click on the Back button to return to the screen where the installation directory you want to change is specified. When you are satisfied with your selections, click Next to move onto the Server Configuration page as shown below. 

 If you are planning on installing multiple SQL Server instances on the same server, consider using separate subdirectories for each instance’s data and log files. This way, you avoid potential conflicts between data and log filenames for databases with the same names created in more than on SQL Server instance. As you notice, by default, the SQL Server Installer creates subdirectories under the specified root directory name using the SQL Server version number and instance name (for example, MSSQL10_50.MSSQLSERVER) and then an additional subdirectory for the services type (MSSQL for SQL Server, MSAS for Analysis Services, and MSRS for Reporting Services).

The final tab on the Database Engine Configuration tab is FILESTREAM. The FILESTREAM data type is a column property available in SQL Server 2008 and later version. FILESTREAM storage is implemented as avarbinary (max) column, but the actual data is stored as BLOBs in the file system. Because of security considerations, FILESTREAM, by default, is disabled. If you want to use the FILESTREAM option, click the Enable FILESTREAM for Transact-SQL Access check box to enable FILESTREAM capabilities. This control must be checked before the other control options will be available. The Enable FILESTREAM for File I/O Streaming Access check box enables Win32 streaming access for FILESTREAM.

If this option is selected, you can specify the name of the Windows share in which the FILESTREAM data will be stored. The Allow Remote Clients to Have Streaming Access to FILESTREAM Data check box determines whether to allow remote clients to access this FILESTREAM data on this server. For more information on defining and using FILESTREAM data in SQL Server 2008, see “Creating and Managing Tables,”  If you are unsure whether you need or want to use FILESTREAM data, you can leave this option disabled during the install. You can enable FILESTREAM data at any time via the SQL Server Configuration Manager.

Some of the remaining configuration screens depend on which features you selected in the Feature Selection page. For example, if you chose to install Analysis Services or Reporting Services, you have configuration pages to specify the installation options for these features. For more information on configuring Analysis Services and Reporting Services, see , “SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services,” and  “SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services.” As with the FILESTREAM option, you do not have to install Analysis Services or Reporting Services during the initial install. You can always run the SQL Server Installation Center later to add these features to an existing SQL Server instance. After you finish making your selections, click Next to move on to the Error Reporting page. On the Error Reporting page, you have the option to indicate whether you want to have error reports sent to Microsoft automatically for any of the SQL Server services that run without user interaction. This option, if enabled, helps Microsoft improve future releases of SQL Server features by sending error reports to Microsoft automatically.

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SQL Server installation walk-through

  •  In versions of SQL Server 2008 prior to R2, the installation rules were not run until later in the installation process.
     Database Engine Services—Includes the core Database Engine services, optional replication (see, “Replication”), and Full-Text Search ( “SQL Server Full-Text Search”) services.
  • Analysis Services—Includes the engine used to create business intelligence solutions that rely on OLAP and data mining (see “SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services”).
  • Reporting Services—Includes the engine and tools used to generate and deploy data-centric reports (see Chapter 53, “SQL Server 2008 Reporting Services”).
  • Shared Features—Includes optional features shared among multiple SQL Server instances on the same system, such as Business Intelligence Development Studio, Client Tools Connectivity components, Integration Services, SQL Server Books Online, SQL Server Management Tools, and the Microsoft Sync Framework. Type your paragraph here.

If you are uncertain about the need for a specific feature, when you click on it in this window, a description of the feature and what will be installed is displayed in the Description pane on the right. The Feature Selection page is also the place where you can change the installation location for the shared features (if this is the first time any of the shared features are being installed on the system). The default location is C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server. In most production installations, you’ll most likely want the shared features to remain in the Program Files folder. After you finish making your selections, click Next to move on to the Installation Rules page. In versions of SQL Server 2008 prior to R2, the installation rules were not run until later in the installation process.

The Installation Rules page runs a check to determine whether there are any issues that will block the installation of the selected features. From this page, you can address any issues and rerun the rules until they all pass or only warning messages are displayed. Like the Setup Support Rules page, this page enables you to get detailed information on the rule checks performed by clicking on the Show Details button.

You can get more information on a specific rule by clicking the hyperlink in the Status column. A detailed HTML report can be generated as well by clicking on the View Detailed Report hyperlink. When no errors are displayed on the Installation Rules page, click Next to proceed to the Instance Configuration page. You can choose to install SQL Server as the default instance (if a default instance has not already been installed) or as a named instance.

SQL Server supports multiple instances of SQL Server on a single server or workstation, but only one instance can be the default instance. The default instance can be an installation of SQL Server 2000, SQL Server 2005, or SQL Server 2008 or later version. All other instances must be named instances.

The named instances can be different versions and/or editions of SQL Server. You can run multiple instances of SQL Server concurrently on the same machine with each instance running independently of other instances. You can also install SQL Server as a named instance without installing a default instance first.

If any instances are already installed, they are listed in the Installed Instances list. (For example, the below pic shows that an instance of the Shared Components from SQL Server 2005 is already installed. Another option you can specify on this screen is the Instance Root Directory. This determines where the data files for the system databases for the SQL Server instance will be installed. The installation path for SQL Server 2008 defaults to the system drive of the machine to which you are installing, followed by the root default folder: [system drive letter]:Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server. From here, two main subfolders branch out:

  •  100—This is the version-specific parent folder (SQL Server 2008 is version 10.0, hence 100) for shared features such as Integration Services (under DTS), client tools (under Tools), shared tools (under Shared), and COM components (under COM).
  • MSSQL10_50.InstanceName—This is the parent folder for Database Engine components (under MSSQL/Binn) and data files (under MSSQL/Data). InstanceName is determined by the value specified during the installation process.
  • MSAS10_50.InstanceName—This is the parent folder for Analysis Services components